Kharkiv is a city situated in the north-eastern part of Ukraine. It is the second largest city after Kiev and the first capital of the country. Kharkiv – the second largest city in Ukraine, the country’s scientific center, the center of the Kharkiv region.
The only city in Ukraine with a full set of Council of Europe awards: a diploma, an honorary flag, a table of Europe and the Prize of Europe.
The modern city was founded in 1654 on the site of an ancient settlement, sometimes identified as the Polovtsian city of the XI century Sharukani or the Hun city of the 5th century Kharka. From December 1917 to January 1918, the capital of the Ukrainian People’s Republic of Soviets, in February-March 1918, the capital of the Donetsk-Krivoy Rog Soviet Republic, in March-June 1919, and from December 19, 1919, to 24 June 1934, the capital of the Ukrainian Socialist Soviet Republic.
There are 142 research institutes in the city of 45 higher educational institutions, including Kharkiv University, which is in the top 500 universities of the world and the Polytechnic Institute, which is in the top 1000; 16 museums, city art gallery, 6 state theaters, 80 libraries.
In the USSR, it was the largest center for tank, tractor, and turbine engineering and the third largest industrial, scientific, and transport center. In the second half of the 20th century, the main transport hub of Southeast Europe.
It was awarded the Order of Lenin (1970) and the October Revolution (1983), as well as the awards of the Council of Europe (2010). In 2013, the city council of Kharkov awarded the city the title “City of Military Glory”.
Local Government – Kharkiv City Council.
In 2012, he was one of four cities in Ukraine who hosted the European Football Championship 2012.
The climate in Kharkiv is moderately continental, with moderately mild winters and long, hot, sometimes dry summers.
- The average annual temperature is + 8,1 ° C
- Average annual wind speed – 3.9 m / s
- The average annual humidity is 74%
Modern Kharkiv is one of the largest transport hubs of the country (railways and highways, international airport). The city has an extensive network of street public transport: taxis, buses, trolley buses, trams.
Seven Wonders of Kharkov
Have you ever heard of the seven wonders of the world: the pyramids of Giza, the hanging gardens of Semiramis, the statue of Zeus, the Colossus of Rhodes, the Lighthouse of Alexandria, and so on. These are the places that are the most illustrious, and almost everyone wants to visit them.
In Kharkiv, too, has its own seven wonders. These are the most interesting and colorful sights of our city. The list of the seven wonders of Kharkiv consists of the monument to Taras Shevchenko, the fountain “Mirror Stream”, the Pokrovsky Cathedral, the Assumption and the Annunciation Cathedral, the Gosprom and a house with a spire. Let’s try to visit all these wonders virtually.
So, the first miracle of Kharkov is the monument to Taras Grigorievich Shevchenko, which is located in the garden of Shevchenko. The garden itself was renamed in honor of the great poet when this monument appeared there. The monument is in harmony with the general architectural ensemble of the garden and Sumskaya street. Its height is more than 16 meters, the height of the statue of the poet reaches 4.5 meters. Made a monument in the style of socialist realism with elements of Stalinist baroque. The figure of Kobzar symbolizes the struggle for justice and the rights of the people.
A sculptural group consisting of workers and peasants is located around the statue of Shevchenko. Only 16 silhouettes. They symbolize both the images from the poetry of Taras Grigorievich, who fought for will, freedom and equality, and the revolutionary figures, which are depicted as a worker-miner, collective farmer, Red Army man and woman, is the personification of the Soviet era. The monument was solemnly opened on March 24, 1935, 9 months after the loss of the title of the capital of Ukraine to Kharkiv. The authors of the monument are Matvey Manizer and Joseph Langbard. The monument has its own legend. Kharkiv residents believe that if you rub the finger of one of the images of the monument, it will bring happiness. Another legend says that happiness will go to someone who finds a cartwheel on the monument. Well, there is an opportunity to check.
The composition is made in the form of an arbor, from which crystal clear water flows like a mirror. Hence the name of the architectural group. Behind the monument there is a fountain, near which the townspeople love to spend the hours of summer afternoon heat or stroll in the evening in the shade of the alley. The Mirror Stream was built in 1947 and initially symbolized the Victory in the Great Patriotic War, and now it has become one of the most romantic places in the city. Especially after the lights were installed here, and at night the fountain glows with all the colors of the rainbow. The beauty of the “Mirror Jet” is impossible to convey, it must be seen.
Now let’s move on to the Pokrovsky, Assumption, and Annunciation Cathedrals. These are Orthodox churches, the largest and most beautiful in the city.
Another cathedral – the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary or the Assumption – is the oldest Orthodox church in Kharkiv.
The first written mention of it dates from the year 1658. He rebuilt many times. The bell tower at the time of construction was one of the tallest in the Russian Empire, even higher than the Ivan the Great bell tower in Moscow, now it is the highest in Kharkov. On December 1, 1986, the House of Organ and Chamber Music was opened in the temple. By its architectural style, the cathedral is very similar to the Church of St. Clement in Moscow.
Kharkiv cathedrals amaze with their rich decoration and grandeur. Blinds the shine of their domes in the sun. Unfortunately, during the years of Soviet power, this historical and cultural heritage was not given significant attention. In recent years, active renewal and reconstruction of cathedrals.
It is located in the very center of the city on Freedom Square (formerly Dzerzhinsky Square). The capital of Soviet Ukraine was supposed to have a central building that would unite the entire main industrial elite of the country under one roof. In addition to 22 industrial trusts, the Industrial Bank, Vneshtorg and Gostorg of the Ukrainian SSR were to be accommodated here.
The project of the building was chosen as a result of a competition in which Leningradians won – Sergei Savvich Serafimov, Samuel Kraonetz and Mark Davidovich Felger. Like everyone in the Soviet Union, the building was erected in the shortest possible time, so to speak, a five-year plan in three years. By the eleventh anniversary of the October Revolution – November 7, 1928 – the Gosprom was put into operation.
The construction was suspended and closed, it took even the personal intervention of Felix Dzerzhinsky. That is why the building was originally given its name. Gosprom prepared for a preliminary list of UNESCO monuments, that is, in the future it may be included in the list of world heritage. Unfortunately, now this monumental building is in a deplorable state and requires reconstruction and repair.
This is a residential building located in the center of Kharkiv. It is made in the style of the Stalin Empire style. The building occupies a whole block from Constitution Square to Moskovsky Prospect – Korolenko and Armenian Alley. Such a scope it received after the war. The small houses in this place were almost completely destroyed. And it was decided to build housing for employees of the Kharkiv Turbine Plant. It was this factory and the building was built with a spire in 1954. Further to the building were attached new entrances and wings. The name of the house gave it a spire built on one of the roofs.
In 2008, the “Seven Wonders of Kharkiv” competition was announced in Kharkiv, the models of the winners of which are decorated with the Architects Square in Kharkiv. Now we have our seven wonders – these are the most interesting, beautiful and unique sights of Kharkiv.